by Gary Null, Ph.D.
There's nothing like a glass of cool, clear water
to quench one's thirst. But the next time you or your child reaches
for one, you might want to question whether that water is in fact, too
toxic to drink. If your water is fluoridated, the answer may well be
For decades, we have been told a lie, a lie that
has led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Americans and the
weakening of the immune systems of tens of millions more. This lie is
called fluoridation. A process we were led to believe was a safe and
effective method of protecting teeth from decay is in fact a fraud.
In recent years it's been shown that fluoridation is neither essential
for good health nor protective of teeth. What it does is poison the
body. We should all at this point be asking how and why public health
policy and the American media continue to live with and perpetuate this
How to Market a Toxic Waste
"We would not purposely add arsenic to the
water supply. And we would not purposely add lead. But we do add fluoride.
The fact is that fluoride is more toxic than lead and just slightly
less toxic than arsenic."1
These words of Dr. John Yiamouyiannis may come as
a shock to you because, if you're like most Americans, you have positive
associations with fluoride. You may envision tooth protection, strong
bones, and a government that cares about your dental needs. What you've
probably never been told is that the fluoride added to drinking water
and toothpaste is a crude industrial waste product of the aluminum and
fertilizer industries, and a substance toxic enough to be used as rat
poison. How is it that Americans have learned to love an environmental
hazard? This phenomenon can be attributed to a carefully planned marketing
program begun even before Grand Rapids, Michigan, became the first community
to officially fluoridate its drinking water in 1945.2 As
a result of this ongoing campaign, nearly two-thirds of the nation has
enthusiastically followed Grand Rapids' example. But this push for fluoridation
has less to do with a concern for America's health than with industry's
penchant to expand at the expense of our nation's well-being.
The first thing you have to understand about fluoride
is that it's the problem child of industry. Its toxicity was recognized
at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, when, in the 1850s iron
and copper factories discharged it into the air and poisoned plants,
animals, and people.3 The problem was exacerbated in the
1920s when rapid industrial growth meant massive pollution. Medical
writer Joel Griffiths explains that "it was abundantly clear to
both industry and government that spectacular U.S. industrial expansion
- and the economic and military power and vast profits it promised -
would necessitate releasing millions of tons of waste fluoride into
the environment."4 Their biggest fear was that "if
serious injury to people were established, lawsuits alone could prove
devastating to companies, while public outcry could force industry-wide
government regulations, billions in pollution-control costs, and even
mandatory changes in high-fluoride raw materials and profitable technologies."5
At first, industry could dispose of fluoride legally
only in small amounts by selling it to insecticide and rat poison manufacturers.6
Then a commercial outlet was devised in the 1930s when a connection
was made between water supplies bearing traces of fluoride and lower
rates of tooth decay. Griffiths writes that this was not a scientific
breakthrough, but rather part of a "public disinformation campaign"
by the aluminum industry "to convince the public that fluoride
was safe and good." Industry's need prompted Alcoa-funded scientist
Gerald J. Cox to announce that "The present trend toward complete
removal of fluoride from water may need some reversal."7
"The big news in Cox's announcement was that
this 'apparently worthless by-product' had not only been proved safe
(in low doses), but actually beneficial; it might reduce cavities in
children. A proposal was in the air to add fluoride to the entire nation's
drinking water. While the dose to each individual would be low, 'fluoridation'
on a national scale would require the annual addition of hundreds of
thousands of tons of fluoride to the country's drinking water.
"Government and industry - especially Alcoa
- strongly supported intentional water fluoridation...[it] made possible
a master public relations stroke - one that could keep scientists and
the public off fluoride's case for years to come. If the leaders of
dentistry, medicine, and public health could be persuaded to endorse
fluoride in the public's drinking water, proclaiming to the nation that
there was a 'wide margin of safety,' how were they going to turn around
later and say industry's fluoride pollution was dangerous?
"As for the public, if fluoride could be introduced
as a health enhancing substance that should be added to the environment
for the children's sake, those opposing it would look like quacks and
"Back at the Mellon Institute, Alcoa's Pittsburgh
Industrial research lab, this news was galvanic. Alcoa-sponsored biochemist
Gerald J. Cox immediately fluoridated some lab rats in a study and concluded
that fluoride reduced cavities and that 'The case should be regarded
as proved.' In a historic moment in 1939, the first public proposal
that the U.S. should fluoridate its water supplies was made - not by
a doctor, or dentist, but by Cox, an industry scientist working for
a company threatened by fluoride damage claims."8
Once the plan was put into action, industry was
buoyant. They had finally found the channel for fluoride that they were
looking for, and they were even cheered on by dentists, government agencies,
and the public. Chemical Week, a publication for the chemical industry,
described the tenor of the times: "All over the country, slide
rules are getting warm as waterworks engineers figure the cost of adding
fluoride to their water supplies." They are riding a trend urged
upon them, by the U.S. Public Health Service, the American Dental Association,
the State Dental Health Directors, various state and local health bodies,
and vocal women's clubs from coast to coast. It adds up to a nice piece
of business on all sides and many firms are cheering the PHS and similar
groups as they plump for increasing adoption of fluoridation."9
Such overwhelming acceptance allowed government
and industry to proceed hastily, albeit irresponsibly. The Grand Rapids
experiment was supposed to take 15 years, during which time health benefits
and hazards were to be studied. In 1946, however, just one year into
the experiment, six more U.S. cities adopted the process. By 1947, 87
more communities were treated; popular demand was the official reason
for this unscientific haste.
The general public and its leaders did support the
cause, but only after a massive government public relations campaign
spearheaded by Edward L. Bernays, a nephew of Sigmund Freud. Bernays,
a public relations pioneer who has been called "the original spin
doctor,"10 was a masterful PR strategist. As a result
of his influence, Griffiths writes, "Almost overnight...the popular
image of fluoride - which at the time was being widely sold as rat and
bug poison - became that of a beneficial provider of gleaming smiles,
absolutely safe, and good for children, bestowed by a benevolent paternal
government. Its opponents were permanently engraved on the public mind
as crackpots and right-wing loonies."11
Griffiths explains that while opposition to fluoridation
is usually associated with right-wingers, this picture is not totally
accurate. He provides an interesting historical perspective on the anti-fluoridation
"Fluoridation attracted opponents from every
point on the continuum of politics and sanity. The prospect of the government
mass-medicating the water supplies with a well-known rat poison to prevent
a nonlethal disease flipped the switches of delusionals across the country
- as well as generating concern among responsible scientists, doctors,
"Moreover, by a fortuitous twist of circumstances,
fluoride's natural opponents on the left were alienated from the rest
of the opposition. Oscar Ewing, a Federal Security Agency administrator,
was a Truman "fair dealer" who pushed many progressive programs
such as nationalized medicine. Fluoridation was lumped with his proposals.
Inevitably, it was attacked by conservatives as a manifestation of "creeping
socialism," while the left rallied to its support. Later during
the McCarthy era, the left was further alienated from the opposition
when extreme right-wing groups, including the John Birch Society and
the Ku Klux Klan, raved that fluoridation was a plot by the Soviet Union
and/or communists in the government to poison America's brain cells.
"It was a simple task for promoters, under
the guidance of the 'original spin doctor,' to paint all opponents as
deranged - and they played this angle to the hilt....
"Actually, many of the strongest opponents
originally started out as proponents, but changed their minds after
a close look at the evidence. And many opponents came to view fluoridation
not as a communist plot, but simply as a capitalist-style con job of
epic proportions. Some could be termed early environmentalists, such
as the physicians George L. Waldbott and Frederick B. Exner, who first
documented government-industry complicity in hiding the hazards of fluoride
pollution from the public. Waldbott and Exner risked their careers in
a clash with fluoride defenders, only to see their cause buried in toothpaste
By 1950, fluoridation's image was a sterling one,
and there was not much science could do at this point. The Public Health
Service was fluoridation's main source of funding as well as its promoter,
and therefore caught in a fundamental conflict of interest.12
If fluoridation were found to be unsafe and ineffective, and laws were
repealed, the organization feared a loss of face, since scientists,
politicians, dental groups, and physicians unanimously supported it.13
For this reason, studies concerning its effects were not undertaken.
The Oakland Tribune noted this when it stated that "public health
officials have often suppressed scientific doubts" about fluoridation.14
Waldbott sums up the situation when he says that from the beginning,
the controversy over fluoridating water supplies was "a political,
not a scientific health issue."15
The marketing of fluoride continues. In a 1983 letter
from the Environmental Protection Agency, then Deputy Assistant Administrator
for Water, Rebecca Hammer, writes that the EPA "regards [fluoridation]
as an ideal environmental solution to a long-standing problem. By recovering
by-product fluosilicic acid from fertilizer manufacturing, water and
air pollution are minimized and water utilities have a low-cost source
of fluoride available to them."16 More recently, a 1992
policy statement from the Department of Health and Human Services says,
"A recent comprehensive PHS review of the benefits and potential
health risks of fluoride has concluded that the practice of fluoridating
community water supplies is safe and effective."17
Today, nearly 250 million people worldwide drink
fluoridated water, including about 130 million Americans in 9600 communities.
Out of the 50 largest cities in the US, 41 have fluoridated water.18
To help celebrate fluoride's widespread use, the
media recently reported on the 50th anniversary of fluoridation in Grand
Rapids. Newspaper articles titled "Fluoridation: a shining public
health success"19 and "After 50 years, fluoride
still works with a smile"20 painted glowing pictures
of the practice. Had investigators looked more closely, though, they
might have learned that children in Muskegon, Michigan, an unfluoridated
"control" city, had equal drops in dental decay. They might
also have learned of the other studies that dispute the supposed wonders
The Fluoride Myth Doesn't Hold Water
The big hope for fluoride was its ability to immunize
children's developing teeth against cavities. Rates of dental caries
were supposed to plummet in areas where water was treated. Yet decades
of experience and worldwide research have contradicted this expectation
numerous times. Here are just a few examples:
In British Columbia, only 11% of the population
drinks fluoridated water, as opposed to 40-70% in other Canadian regions.
Yet British Columbia has the lowest rate of tooth decay in Canada. In
addition, the lowest rates of dental caries within the province are
found in areas that do not have their water supplies fluoridated.21
According to a Sierra Club study, people in unfluoridated
developing nations have fewer dental caries than those living in industrialized
nations. As a result, they conclude that "fluoride is not essential
to dental health."22
In 1986-87, the largest study on fluoridation and
tooth decay ever was performed. The subjects were 39,000 school children
between 5 and 17 living in 84 areas around the country. A third of the
places were fluoridated, a third were partially fluoridated, and a third
were not. Results indicate no statistically significant differences
in dental decay between fluoridated and unfluoridated cities.23
A World Health Organization survey reports a decline
of dental decay in western Europe, which is 98% unfluoridated. They
state that western Europe's declining dental decay rates are equal to
and sometimes better than those in the U.S.24
A 1992 University of Arizona study yielded surprising
results when they found that "the more fluoride a child drinks,
the more cavities appear in the teeth."25
Although all Native American reservations are fluoridated,
children living there have much higher incidences of dental decay and
other oral health problems than do children living in other U.S. communities.26
In light of all the evidence, fluoride proponents
now make more modest claims. For example, in 1988, the ADA professed
that a 40- to 60% cavity reduction could be achieved with the help of
fluoride. Now they claim an 18- to 25% reduction. Other promoters mention
a 12% decline in tooth decay.
And some former supporters are even beginning to
question the need for fluoridation altogether. In 1990, a National Institute
for Dental Research report stated that "it is likely that if caries
in children remain at low levels or decline further, the necessity of
continuing the current variety and extent of fluoride-based prevention
programs will be questioned."27
Most government agencies, however, continue to ignore
the scientific evidence and to market fluoridation by making fictional
claims about its benefits and pushing for its expansion. For instance,
according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, "National
surveys of oral health dating back several decades document continuing
decreases in tooth decay in children, adults and senior citizens. Nevertheless,
there are parts of the country and particular populations that remain
without protection. For these reasons, the U.S. PHS...has set a national
goal for the year 2000 that 75% of persons served by community water
systems will have access to optimally fluoridated drinking water; currently
this figure is just about 60%. The year 2000 target goal is both desirable
and yet challenging, based on past progress and continuing evidence
of effectiveness and safety of this public health measure."17
This statement is flawed on several accounts. First,
as we've seen, research does not support the effectiveness of fluoridation
for preventing tooth disease. Second, purported benefits are supposedly
for children, not adults and senior citizens. At about age 13, any advantage
fluoridation might offer comes to an end, and less than 1% of the fluoridated
water supply reaches this population.28 And third, fluoridation
has never been proven safe. On the contrary, several studies directly
link fluoridation to skeletal fluorosis, dental fluorosis, and several
rare forms of cancer. This alone should frighten us away from its use.
Biological Safety Concerns
Only a small margin separates supposedly beneficial
fluoride levels from amounts that are known to cause adverse effects.
Dr. James Patrick, a former antibiotics research scientist at the National
Institutes of Health, describes the predicament:
"[There is] a very low margin of safety involved
in fluoridating water. A concentration of about 1 ppm is recommended...in
several countries, severe fluorosis has been documented from water supplies
containing only 2 or 3 ppm. In the development of drugs...we generally
insist on a therapeutic index (margin of safety) of the order of 100;
a therapeutic index of 2 or 3 is totally unacceptable, yet that is what
has been proposed for public water supplies."29
Other countries argue that even 1 ppm is not a safe
concentration. Canadian studies, for example, imply that children under
three should have no fluoride whatsoever. The Journal of the Canadian
Dental Association states that "Fluoride supplements should not
be recommended for children less than 3 years old."30
Since these supplements contain the same amount of fluoride as water
does, they are basically saying that children under the age of three
shouldn't be drinking fluoridated water at all, under any circumstances.
Japan has reduced the amount of fluoride in their drinking water to
one-eighth of what is recommended in the U.S. Instead of 1 milligram
per liter, they use less than 15 hundredths of a milligram per liter
as the upper limit allowed. 31
Even supposing that low concentrations are safe,
there is no way to control how much fluoride different people consume,
as some take in a lot more than others. For example, laborers, athletes,
diabetics, and those living in hot or dry regions can all be expected
to drink more water, and therefore more fluoride (in fluoridated areas)
than others.32 Due to such wide variations in water consumption,
it is impossible to scientifically control what dosage of fluoride a
person receives via the water supply.33
Another concern is that fluoride is not found only
in drinking water; it is everywhere. Fluoride is found in foods that
are processed with it, which, in the United States, include nearly all
bottled drinks and canned foods.34 Researchers writing in
The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry have found that fruit juices,
in particular, contain significant amounts of fluoride. In a recent
study, a variety of popular juices and juice blends were analyzed and
it was discovered that 42% of the samples examined had more than l ppm
of fluoride, with some brands of grape juice containing much higher
levels - up to 6.8 ppm! The authors cite the common practice of using
fluoride-containing insecticide in growing grapes as a factor in these
high levels, and they suggest that the fluoride content of beverages
be printed on their labels, as is other nutritional information.35
Considering how much juice some children ingest, and the fact that youngsters
often insist on particular brands that they consume day after day, labeling
seems like a prudent idea. But beyond this is the larger issue that
this study brings up: Is it wise to subject children and others who
are heavy juice drinkers to additional fluoride in their water?
Here's a little-publicized reality: Cooking can
greatly increase a food's fluoride content. Peas, for example, contain
12 micrograms of fluoride when raw and 1500 micrograms after they are
cooked in fluoridated water, which is a tremendous difference. Also,
we should keep in mind that fluoride is an ingredient in pharmaceuticals,
aerosols, insecticides, and pesticides.
And of course, toothpastes. It's interesting to
note that in the 1950s, fluoridated toothpastes were required to carry
warnings on their labels saying that they were not to be used in areas
where water was already fluoridated. Crest toothpaste went so far as
to write: "Caution: Children under 6 should not use Crest."
These regulations were dropped in 1958, although no new research was
available to prove that the overdose hazard no longer existed.36
Today, common fluoride levels in toothpaste are
1000 ppm. Research chemist Woodfun Ligon notes that swallowing a small
amount adds substantially to fluoride intake.36 Dentists
say that children commonly ingest up to 0.5 mg of fluoride a day from
This inevitably raises another issue: How safe is
all this fluoride? According to scientists and informed doctors, such
as Dr. John Lee, it is not safe at all. Dr. Lee first took an anti-fluoridation
stance back in 1972, when as chairman of an environmental health committee
for a local medical society, he was asked to state their position on
the subject. He stated that after investigating the references given
by both pro- and anti-fluoridationists, the group discovered three important
"One, the claims of benefit of fluoride, the
60% reduction of cavities, was not established by any of these studies.
Two, we found that the investigations into the toxic side effects of
fluoride have not been done in any way that was acceptable. And three,
we discovered that the estimate of the amount of fluoride in the food
chain, in the total daily fluoride intake, had been measured in 1943,
and not since then. By adding the amount of fluoride that we now have
in the food chain, which comes from food processing with fluoridated
water, plus all the fluoridated toothpaste that was not present in 1943,
we found that the daily intake of fluoride was far in excess of what
was considered optimal."31
What happens when fluoride intake exceeds the optimal?
The inescapable fact is that this substance has been associated with
severe health problems, ranging from skeletal and dental fluorosis to
bone fractures, to fluoride poisoning, and even to cancer.
When fluoride is ingested, approximately 93% of it is
absorbed into the bloodstream. A good part of the material is excreted,
but the rest is deposited in the bones and teeth,37 and is
capable of causing a crippling skeletal fluorosis. This is a condition
that can damage the musculoskeletal and nervous systems and result in
muscle wasting, limited joint motion, spine deformities, and calcification
of the ligaments, as well as neurological deficits. 38
Large numbers of people in Japan, China, India,
the Middle East, and Africa have been diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis
from drinking naturally fluoridated water. In India alone, nearly a
million people suffer from the affliction.39 While only a
dozen cases of skeletal fluorosis have been reported in the United States,
Chemical and Engineering News states that "critics of the EPA standard
speculate that there probably have been many more cases of fluorosis
- even crippling fluorosis - than the few reported in the literature
because most doctors in the U.S. have not studied the disease and do
not know how to diagnose it."40
Radiologic changes in bone occur when fluoride exposure
is 5 mg/day, according to the late Dr. George Waldbott, author of Fluoridation:
The Great Dilemma. While this 5 mg/day level is the amount of fluoride
ingested by most people living in fluoridated areas,41 the
number increases for diabetics and laborers, who can ingest up to 20
mg of fluoride daily. In addition, a survey conducted by the Department
of Agriculture shows that 3% of the U.S. population drinks 4 liters
or more of water every day. If these individuals live in areas where
the water contains a fluoride level of 4 ppm, allowed by the EPA, they
are ingesting 16 mg/day from the consumption of water alone, and are
thus at greater risk for getting skeletal fluorosis.42
According to a 1989 National Institute for Dental
Research study, 1-2% of children living in areas fluoridated at 1 ppm
develop dental fluorosis, that is, permanently stained, brown mottled
teeth. Up to 23% of children living in areas naturally fluoridated at
4 ppm develop severe dental fluorosis.43 Other research gives
higher figures. The publication Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride,
put out by the National Academy of Sciences, reports that in areas with
optimally fluoridated water (1 ppm, either natural or added), dental
fluorosis levels in recent years ranged from 8 to 51%. Recently, a prevalence
of slightly over 80% was reported in children 12-14 years old in Augusta,
Fluoride is a noteworthy chemical additive in that
its officially acknowledged benefit and damage levels are about the
same. Writing in The Progressive, science journalist Daniel Grossman
elucidates this point: "Though many beneficial chemicals are dangerous
when consumed at excessive levels, fluoride is unique because the amount
that dentists recommend to prevent cavities is about the same as the
amount that causes dental fluorosis."44 Although the
American Dental Association and the government consider dental fluorosis
only a cosmetic problem, the American Journal of Public Health says
that "...brittleness of moderately and severely mottled teeth may
be associated with elevated caries levels."45 In other
words, in these cases the fluoride is causing the exact problem that
it's supposed to prevent. Yiamouyiannis adds, "In highly naturally-fluoridated
areas, the teeth actually crumble as a result. These are the first visible
symptoms of fluoride poisoning."46
Also, when considering dental fluorosis, there are
factors beyond the physical that you can't ignore - the negative psychological
effects of having moderately to severely mottled teeth. These were recognized
in a 1984 National Institute of Mental Health panel that looked into
A telling trend is that TV commercials for toothpaste,
and toothpaste tubes themselves, are now downplaying fluoride content
as a virtue. This was noted in an article in the Sarasota/Florida ECO
Report,47 whose author, George Glasser, feels that manufacturers
are distancing themselves from the additive because of fears of lawsuits.
The climate is ripe for these, and Glasser points out that such a class
action suit has already been filed in England against the manufacturers
of fluoride-containing products on behalf of children suffering from
At one time, fluoride therapy was recommended for
building denser bones and preventing fractures associated with osteoporosis.
Now several articles in peer-reviewed journals suggest that fluoride
actually causes more harm than good, as it is associated with bone breakage.
Three studies reported in The Journal of the American Medical Association
showed links between hip fractures and fluoride.48-50 Findings
here were, for instance, that there is "a small but significant
increase in the risk of hip fractures in both men and women exposed
to artificial fluoridation at 1 ppm."51 In addition,
the New England Journal of Medicine reports that people given fluoride
to cure their osteoporosis actually wound up with an increased nonvertebral
fracture rate.52 Austrian researchers have also found that
fluoride tablets make bones more susceptible to fractures.53
The U.S. National Research Council states that the U.S. hip fracture
rate is now the highest in the world.54
Louis V. Avioli, professor at the Washington University
School of Medicine, says in a 1987 review of the subject: "Sodium
fluoride therapy is accompanied by so many medical complications and
side effects that it is hardly worth exploring in depth as a therapeutic
mode for postmenopausal osteoporosis, since it fails to decrease the
propensity for hip fractures and increases the incidence of stress fractures
in the extremities."54
In May 1992, 260 people were poisoned, and one man
died, in Hooper Bay, Alaska, after drinking water contaminated with
150 ppm of fluoride. The accident was attributed to poor equipment and
an unqualified operator.55 Was this a fluke? Not at all.
Over the years, the CDC has recorded several incidents of excessive
fluoride permeating the water supply and sickening or killing people.
We don't usually hear about these occurrences in news reports, but interested
citizens have learned the truth from data obtained under the Freedom
of Information Act. Here is a partial list of toxic spills we have not
been told about:
July 1993 - Chicago, Illinois: Three dialysis patients died and five
experienced toxic reactions to the fluoridated water used in the treatment
process. The CDC was asked to investigate, but to date there have been
no press releases.
May 1993 - Kodiak, Alaska (Old Harbor): The population was warned not
to consume water due to high fluoride levels. They were also cautioned
against boiling the water, since this concentrates the substance and
worsens the danger. Although equipment appeared to be functioning normally,
22-24 ppm of fluoride was found in a sample.
July 1992 - Marin County, California: A pump malfunction allowed too
much fluoride into the Bon Tempe treatment plant. Two million gallons
of fluoridated water were diverted to Phoenix Lake, elevating the lake
surface by more than two inches and forcing some water over the spillway.
December 1991 - Benton Harbor, Michigan: A faulty pump allowed approximately
900 gallons of hydrofluosilicic acid to leak into a chemical storage
building at the water plant. City engineer Roland Klockow stated, "The
concentrated hydrofluosilicic acid was so corrosive that it ate through
more than two inches of concrete in the storage building." This
water did not reach water consumers, but fluoridation was stopped until
June 1993. The original equipment was only two years old.
July 1991 - Porgate, Michigan: After a fluoride injector pump failed,
fluoride levels reached 92 ppm and resulted in approximately 40 children
developing abdominal pains, sickness, vomiting, and diarrhea at a school
arts and crafts show.
November 1979 - Annapolis, Maryland: One patient died and eight became
ill after renal dialysis treatment. Symptoms included cardiac arrest
(resuscitated), hypotension, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and a
whole gamut of intestinal problems. Patients not on dialysis also reported
nausea, headaches, cramps, diarrhea, and dizziness. The fluoride level
was later found to be 35 ppm; the problem was traced to a valve at a
water plant that had been left open all night.55
Instead of addressing fluoridation's problematic
safety record, officials have chosen to cover it up. For example, the
ADA says in one booklet distributed to health agencies that "Fluoride
feeders are designed to stop operating when a malfunction occurs...
so prolonged over-fluoridation becomes a mechanical impossibility."56
In addition, the information that does reach the population after
an accident is woefully inaccurate. A spill in Annapolis, Maryland,
placed thousands at risk, but official reports reduced the number to
eight.57 Perhaps officials are afraid they will invite more
lawsuits like the one for $480 million by the wife of a dialysis patient
who became brain-injured as the result of fluoride poisoning.
Not all fluoride poisoning is accidental. For decades,
industry has knowingly released massive quantities of fluoride into
the air and water. Disenfranchised communities, with people least able
to fight back, are often the victims. Medical writer Joel Griffiths
relays this description of what industrial pollution can do, in this
case to a devastatingly poisoned Indian reservation:
"Cows crawled around the pasture on their bellies,
inching along like giant snails. So crippled by bone disease they could
not stand up, this was the only way they could graze. Some died kneeling,
after giving birth to stunted calves. Others kept on crawling until,
no longer able to chew because their teeth had crumbled down to the
nerves, they began to starve...." They were the cattle of the Mohawk
Indians on the New York-Canadian St. Regis Reservation during the period
1960-1975, when industrial pollution devastated the herd - and along
with it, the Mohawks' way of life....Mohawk children, too, have shown
signs of damage to bones and teeth."58
Mohawks filed suit against the Reynolds Metals Company
and the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) in 1960, but ended up settling
out of court, where they received $650,000 for their cows.59
Fluoride is one of industry's major pollutants,
and no one remains immune to its effects. In 1989, 155,000 tons were
being released annually into the air,60 and 500,000 tons
a year were disposed of in our lakes, rivers, and oceans.61
Numerous studies demonstrate links between fluoridation
and cancer; however, agencies promoting fluoride consistently refute
or cover up these findings.
In 1977, Dr. John Yiamouyiannis and Dr. Dean Burk,
former chief chemist at the National Cancer Institute, released a study
that linked fluoridation to 10,000 cancer deaths per year in the U.S.
Their inquiry, which compared cancer deaths in the ten largest fluoridated
American cities to those in the ten largest unfluoridated cities between
1940 and 1950, discovered a 5% greater rate in the fluoridated areas.62
The NCI disputed these findings, since an earlier analysis of theirs
apparently failed to pick up these extra deaths. Federal authorities
claimed that Yiamouyiannis and Burk were in error, and that any increase
was caused by statistical changes over the years in age, gender, and
In order to settle the question of whether or not
fluoride is a carcinogen, a Congressional subcommittee instructed the
National Toxicology Program (NTP) to perform another investigation.64
That study, due in 1980, was not released until 1990. However, in 1986,
while the study was delayed, the EPA raised the standard fluoride level
in drinking water from 2.4 to 4 ppm.65 After this step, some
of the government's own employees in NFFE Local 2050 took what the Oakland
Tribune termed the "remarkable step of denouncing that action as
When the NTP study results became known in early
1990, union president Dr. Robert Carton, who works in the EPA's Toxic
Substances Division, published a statement. It read, in part: "Four
years ago, NFFE Local 2050, which represents all 1100 professionals
at EPA headquarters, alerted then Administrator Lee Thomas to the fact
that the scientific support documents for the fluoride in drinking water
standard were fatally flawed. The fluoride juggernaut proceeded as it
apparently had for the last 40 years - without any regard for the facts
or concern for public health.
"EPA raised the allowed level of fluoride before
the results of the rat/mouse study ordered by Congress in 1977 was complete.
Today, we find out how irresponsible that decision was. The results
reported by NTP, and explained today by Dr. Yiamouyiannis, are, as he
notes, not surprising considering the vast amount of data that caused
the animal study to be conducted in the first place. The results are
not surprising to NFFE Local 2050 either. Four years ago we realized
that the claim that there was no evidence that fluoride could cause
genetic effects or cancer could not be supported by the shoddy document
thrown together by the EPA contractor.
"It was apparent to us that EPA bowed to political
pressure without having done an in-depth, independent analysis, using
in-house experts, of the currently existing data that show fluoride
causes genetic effects, promotes the growth of cancerous tissue, and
is likely to cause cancer in humans. If EPA had done so, it would have
been readily apparent - as it was to Congress in 1977 - that there were
serious reasons to believe in a cancer threat.
"The behavior by EPA in this affair raises
questions about the integrity of science at EPA and the role of professional
scientists, lawyers and engineers who provide the interpretation of
the available data and the judgements necessary to protect the public
health and the environment. Are scientists at EPA there to arrange facts
to fit preconceived conclusions? Does the Agency have a responsibility
to develop world-class experts in the risks posed by chemicals we are
exposed to every day, or is it permissible for EPA to cynically shop
around for contractors who will provide them the 'correct' answers?"67
What were the NTP study results? Out of 130 male
rats that ingested 45 to 79 ppm of fluoride, 5 developed osteosarcoma,
a rare bone cancer. There were cases, in both males and females at those
doses, of squamous cell carcinoma in the mouth.68 Both rats
and mice had dose-related fluorosis of the teeth, and female rats suffered
osteosclerosis of the long bones.69
When Yiamouyiannis analyzed the same data, he found
mice with a particularly rare form of liver cancer, known as hepatocholangiocarcinoma.
This cancer is so rare, according to Yiamouyiannis, that the odds of
its appearance in this study by chance are 1 in 2 million in male mice
and l in 100,000 in female mice.39 He also found precancerous
changes in oral squamous cells, an increase in squamous cell tumors
and cancers, and thyroid follicular cell tumors as a result of increasing
levels of fluoride in drinking water.70
A March 13, 1990, New York Times article commented
on the NTP findings: "Previous animal tests suggesting that water
fluoridation might pose risks to humans have been widely discounted
as technically flawed, but the latest investigation carefully weeded
out sources of experimental or statistical error, many scientists say,
and cannot be discounted."71 In the same article, biologist
Dr. Edward Groth notes: "The importance of this study...is that
it is the first fluoride bioassay giving positive results in which the
latest state-of-the-art procedures have been rigorously applied. It
has to be taken seriously."71
On February 22, 1990, the Medical Tribune, an international
medical news weekly received by 125,000 doctors, offered the opinion
of a federal scientist who preferred to remain anonymous:
"It is difficult to see how EPA can fail to regulate fluoride
as a carcinogen in light of what NTP has found. Osteosarcomas are an
extremely unusual result in rat carcinogenicity tests. Toxicologists
tell me that the only other substance that has produced this is radium....The
fact that this is a highly atypical form of cancer implicates fluoride
as the cause. Also, the osteosarcomas appeared to be dose-related, and
did not occur in controls, making it a clean study."72
Public health officials were quick to assure a concerned
public that there was nothing to worry about! The ADA said the occurrence
of cancers in the lab may not be relevant to humans since the level
of fluoridation in the experimental animals' water was so high.73
But the Federal Register, which is the handbook of government practices,
disagrees: "The high exposure of experimental animals to toxic
agents is a necessary and valid method of discovering possible carcinogenic
hazards in man. To disavow the findings of this test would be to disavow
those of all such tests, since they are all conducted according to this
standard."73 As a February 5, 1990, Newsweek article
pointed out, "such megadosing is standard toxicological practice.
It's the only way to detect an effect without using an impossibly large
number of test animals to stand in for the humans exposed to the substance."74
And as the Safer Water Foundation explains, higher doses are generally
administered to test animals to compensate for the animals' shorter
life span and because humans are generally more vulnerable than test
animals on a body-weight basis.75
Several other studies link fluoride to genetic damage
and cancer. An article in Mutation Research says that a study by Proctor
and Gamble, the very company that makes Crest toothpaste, did research
showing that 1 ppm fluoride causes genetic damage.76 Results
were never published but Proctor and Gamble called them "clean,"
meaning animals were supposedly free of malignant tumors. Not so, according
to scientists who believe some of the changes observed in test animals
could be interpreted as precancerous.77 Yiamouyiannis says
the Public Health Service sat on the data, which were finally released
via a Freedom of Information Act request in 1989. "Since they are
biased, they have tried to cover up harmful effects," he says.
"But the data speaks for itself. Half the amount of fluoride that
is found in the New York City drinking water causes genetic damage."46
A National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences
publication, Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, also linked fluoride
to genetic toxicity when it stated that "in cultured human and
rodent cells, the weight of evidence leads to the conclusion that fluoride
exposure results in increased chromosome aberrations."78
The result of this is not only birth defects but the mutation of normal
cells into cancer cells. The Journal of Carcinogenesis further states
that "fluoride not only has the ability to transform normal cells
into cancer cells but also to enhance the cancer-causing properties
of other chemicals."79
Surprisingly, the PHS put out a report called Review
of fluoride: benefits and risks, in which they showed a substantially
higher incidence of bone cancer in young men exposed to fluoridated
water compared to those who were not. The New Jersey Department of Health
also found that the risk of bone cancer was about three times as high
in fluoridated areas as in nonfluoridated areas.46
Despite cover-up attempts, the light of knowledge
is filtering through to some enlightened scientists. Regarding animal
test results, the director of the U.S. National Institute of Environmental
Health Sciences, James Huff, does say that "the reason these animals
got a few osteosarcomas was because they were given fluoride...Bone
is the target organ for fluoride."80 Toxicologist William
Marcus adds that "fluoride is a carcinogen by any standard we use.
I believe EPA should act immediately to protect the public, not just
on the cancer data, but on the evidence of bone fractures, arthritis,
mutagenicity, and other effects."81
The Challenge of Eliminating Fluoride
Given all the scientific challenges to the idea
of the safety of fluoride, why does it remain a protected contaminant?
As Susan Pare of the Center for Health Action asks, "...even if
fluoride in the water did reduce tooth decay, which it does not, how
can the EPA allow a substance more toxic than Alar, red dye #3, and
vinyl chloride to be injected purposely into drinking water?"82
This is certainly a logical question and, with all
the good science that seems to exist on the subject, you would think
that there would be a great deal of interest in getting fluoride out
of our water supply. Unfortunately, that hasn't been the case. As Dr.
William Marcus, a senior science advisor in the EPA's Office of Drinking
Water, has found, the top governmental priority has been to sweep the
facts under the rug and, if need be, to suppress truth-tellers. Marcus
explains83 that fluoride is one of the chemicals the EPA
specifically regulates, and that he was following the data coming in
on fluoride very carefully when a determination was going to be made
on whether the levels should be changed. He discovered that the data
were not being heeded. But that was only the beginning of the story
for him. Marcus recounts what happened:
"The studies that were done by Botel Northwest
showed that there was an increased level of bone cancer and other types
of cancer in animals....in that same study, there were very rare liver
cancers, according to the board-certified veterinary pathologists at
the contractor, Botel. Those really were very upsetting because they
were hepatocholangeal carcinomas, very rare liver cancers....Then there
were several other kinds of cancers that were found in the jaw and other
"I felt at that time that the reports were alarming.
They showed that the levels of fluoride that can cause cancers in animals
are actually lower than those levels ingested in people (who take lower
amounts but for longer periods of time).
"I went to a meeting that was held in Research
Triangle Park, in April 1990, in which the National Toxicology Program
was presenting their review of the study. I went with several colleagues
of mine, one of whom was a board-certified veterinary pathologist who
originally reported hepatocholangeal carcinoma as a separate entity
in rats and mice. I asked him if he would look at the slides to see
if that really was a tumor or if the pathologists at Botel had made
an error. He told me after looking at the slides that, in fact, it was
"At the meeting, every one of the cancers reported
by the contractor had been downgraded by the National Toxicology Program.
I have been in the toxicology business looking at studies of this nature
for nearly 25 years and I have never before seen every single cancer
endpoint downgraded.... I found that very suspicious and went to see
an investigator in the Congress at the suggestion of my friend, Bob
Carton. This gentleman and his staff investigated very thoroughly and
found out that the scientists at the National Toxicology Program down
at Research Triangle Park had been coerced by their superiors to change
Once Dr. Marcus acted on his findings, something
ominous started to happen in his life: "...I wrote an internal
memorandum and gave it to my supervisors. I waited for a month without
hearing anything. Usually, you get a feedback in a week or so. I wrote
another memorandum to a person who was my second-line supervisor explaining
that if there was even a slight chance of increased cancer in the general
population, since 140 million people were potentially ingesting this
material, that the deaths could be in the many thousands. Then I gave
a copy of the memorandum to the Fluoride Work Group, who waited some
time and then released it to the press.
"Once it got into the press all sorts of things
started happening at EPA. I was getting disciplinary threats, being
isolated, and all kinds of thingswhich ultimately resulted in them firing
me on March 15, 1992."83
In order to be reinstated at work, Dr. Marcus took
his case to court. In the process, he learned that the government had
engaged in various illegal activities, including 70 felony counts, in
order to get him fired. At the same time, those who committed perjury
were not held accountable for it. In fact, they were rewarded for their
"When we finally got the EPA to the courtroom...they
admitted to doing several things to get me fired. We had notes of a
meeting...that showed that fluoride was one of the main topics discussed
and that it was agreed that they would fire me with the help of the
Inspector General. When we got them on the stand and showed them the
memoranda, they finally remembered and said, oh yes, we lied about that
in our previous statements.
"Then...they admitted to shredding more than
70 documents that they had in hand - Freedom of Information requests.
That's a felony.... In addition, they charged me with stealing time
from the government. They...tried to show...that I had been doing private
work on government time and getting paid for it. When we came to court,
I was able to show that the time cards they produced were forged, and
forged by the Inspector General's staff...."83
For all his efforts, Dr. Marcus was rehired, but
nothing else has changed: "The EPA was ordered to rehire me, which
they did. They were given a whole series of requirements to be met,
such as paying me my back pay, restoring my leave, privileges, and sick
leave and annual leave. The only thing they've done is put me back to
work. They haven't given me any of those things that they were required
What is at the core of such ruthless tactics? John
Yiamouyiannis feels that the central concern of government is to protect
industry, and that the motivating force behind fluoride use is the need
of certain businesses to dump their toxic waste products somewhere.
They try to be inconspicuous in the disposal process and not make waves.
"As is normal, the solution to pollution is dilution. You poison
everyone a little bit rather than poison a few people a lot. This way,
people don't know what's going on."46
Since the Public Health Service has promoted the
fluoride myth for over 50 years, they're concerned about protecting
their reputation. So scientists like Dr. Marcus, who know about the
dangers, are intimidated into keeping silent. Otherwise, they jeopardize
their careers. Dr. John Lee elaborates: "Back in 1943, the PHS
staked their professional careers on the benefits and safety of fluoride.
It has since become bureaucratized. Any public health official who criticizes
fluoride, or even hints that perhaps it was an unwise decision, is at
risk of losing his career entirely. This has happened time and time
again. Public health officials such as Dr. Gray in British Columbia
and Dr. Colquhoun in New Zealand found no benefit from fluoridation.
When they reported these results, they immediately lost their careers....
This is what happens - the public health officials who speak out against
fluoride are at great risk of losing their careers on the spot."31
Yiamouyiannis adds that for the authorities to admit
that they're wrong would be devastating. "It would show that their
reputations really don't mean that much.... They don't have the scientific
background. As Ralph Nader once said, if they admit they're wrong on
fluoridation, people would ask, and legitimately so, what else have
they not told us right?"46
Accompanying a loss in status would be a tremendous
loss in revenue. Yiamouyiannis points out that "the indiscriminate
careless handling of fluoride has a lot of companies, such as Exxon,
U.S. Steel, and Alcoa, making tens of billions of dollars in extra profits
at our expense.... For them to go ahead now and admit that this is bad,
this presents a problem, a threat, would mean tens of billions of dollars
in lost profit because they would have to handle fluoride properly.
Fluoride is present in everything from phosphate fertilizers to cracking
agents for the petroleum industry."46
Fluoride could only be legally disposed of at a
great cost to industry. As Dr. Bill Marcus explains, "There are
prescribed methods for disposal and they're very expensive. Fluoride
is a very potent poison. It's a registered pesticide, used for killing
rats or mice.... If it were to be disposed of, it would require a class-one
landfill. That would cost the people who are producing aluminum or fertilizer
about $7000+ per 5000- to 6000-gallon truckload to dispose of it. It's
Another problem is that the U.S. judicial system,
even when convinced of the dangers, is powerless to change policy. Yiamouyiannis
tells of his involvement in court cases in Pennsylvania and Texas in
which, while the judges were convinced that fluoride was a health hazard,
they did not have the jurisdiction to grant relief from fluoridation.
That would have to be done, it was ultimately found, through the legislative
process.46 Interestingly, the judiciary seems to have more
power to effect change in other countries. Yiamouyiannis states that
when he presented the same technical evidence in Scotland, the Scottish
court outlawed fluoridation based on the evidence.46
Indeed, most of western Europe has rejected fluoridation
on the grounds that it is unsafe. In 1971, after 11 years of testing,
Sweden's Nobel Medical Institute recommended against fluoridation, and
the process was banned. The Netherlands outlawed the practice in 1976,
after 23 years of tests. France decided against it after consulting
with its Pasteur Institute64 and West Germany, now Germany,
rejected the practice because the recommended dosage of 1 ppm was "too
close to the dose at which long-term damage to the human body is to
be expected."84 Dr. Lee sums it up: "All of western
Europe, except one or two test towns in Spain, has abandoned fluoride
as a public health plan. It is not put in the water anywhere. They all
established test cities and found that the benefits did not occur and
the toxicity was evident."31
Isn't it time the United States followed western
Europe's example? While the answer is obvious, it is also apparent that
government policy is unlikely to change without public support. We therefore
must communicate with legislators, and insist on one of our most precious
resources - pure, unadulterated drinking water. Yiamouyiannis urges
all American people to do so, pointing out that public pressure has
gotten fluoride out of the water in places like Los Angeles; Newark
and Jersey City in New Jersey; and Bedford, Massachusetts.46 He
emphasizes the immediacy of the problem: "There is no question
with regard to fluoridation of public water supplies. It is absolutely
unsafe...and should be stopped immediately. This is causing more destruction
to human health than any other single substance added purposely or inadvertently
to the water supply. We're talking about 35,000 excess deaths a year...10,000
cancer deaths a year...130 million people who are being chronically
poisoned. We're not talking about dropping dead after drinking a glass
of fluoridated water.... It takes its toll on human health and life,
glass after glass."46
There is also a moral issue in the debate that has
largely escaped notice. According to columnist James Kilpatrick, it
is "the right of each person to control the drugs he or she takes."
Kilpatrick calls fluoridation compulsory mass medication, a procedure
that violates the principles of medical ethics.13 A recent
New York Times editorial agrees:
"In light of the uncertainty, critics [of fluoridation]
argue that administrative bodies are unjustified in imposing fluoridation
on communities without obtaining public consent.... The real issue here
is not just the scientific debate. The question is whether any establishment
has the right to decide that benefits outweigh risks and impose involuntary
medication on an entire population. In the case of fluoridation, the
dental establishment has made opposition to fluoridation seem intellectually
disreputable. Some people regard that as tyranny."85
Gary Null, PhD
P. O. Box 918
New York, New York 10024 USA
1. Dr. John Yiamouyiannis, in interview with Gary Null, 3/10/95.
His statement is referenced in the Clinical Toxicology of Commercial
Products, Fifth Ed., Williams and Wilkins.
2. Joel Griffiths, "Fluoride: Commie Plot or Capitalist Ploy,"
Covert Action, Fall 1992, Vol. 42, p. 30.
3. Ibid., p. 27.
4. Ibid., p. 28.
6. McNeil, The Fight for Fluoridation, 1957, p. 37.
7. Griffiths, op. cit., p. 28.
8. Griffiths, op. cit.
9. G.L. Waldbott et al., Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma, Lawrence,
XS, Coronado Press, 1978, p. 295.
10. Paul Farhi, Washington Post, 11/23/91.
11. Griffiths, op. cit., p. 63.
12. Longevity Magazine, pp. 7-89.
13. The Morning Call, 2/7/90
14. Science, 1/90.
15. Waldbott, op. cit., p. 255.
16. Letter, Rebecca Hammer, 3/83.
17. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, "Policy statement
on community water fluoridation," July 22, 1992, Washington, D.C.
18. Chemical and Engineering News, 8/1/88, p. 29; Amer. J. Pub.
Health, editorial, 5/89, p. 561; J.A. Brunelle and J.P. Carlos, "Recent
trends in dental caries in U.S. children and the effect of water fluoridation,"
2/90, p. 276.
19. Los Angeles Times. 1/ 26/95..
20. The Chicago Tribune, 1/26/95.
21. A.S. Gray, Canadian Dental Association Journal, October 1987,
22. Letter, Sierra Club to Wm. K. Reilly, EPA, 7/21/89.
23. John Yiamouyiannis, Fluoride, 1990, Vol. 23, pp. 55-67.
24. Center for Health Action, 3/30/90.
25. Clinical Pediatrics, Nov. 1991.
26. ADA News, 10/17/94.
27. Chemical and Engineering News, 8/1/88, p.31.
28. Waldbott, op. cit., p. xvii.
29. Statement by Dr. James Patrick before Congressional Subcommittee,
30. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association, Vol. 59, Apr. 1993,
31. Gary Null interview with Dr. John Lee, 3/10/95.
32. F. Exner and G. Waldbott, The American fluoridation experiment,
1957, p. 43.
33. Federal Register, 12/24/75.
34. Chemical and Engineering News, 8/1/88, p. 33.
35. Jan G. Stannard et al., "Fluoride levels and fluoride
contamination of fruit juices," The Journal of Clinical Pediatric
Dentistry, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1991, pp. 38-40.
36. Waldbott, op. cit., pp. 307-308.
37. Chemical and Engineering News, 8/1/88, p. 49.
38. New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, release,
39. Gary Null interview with Dr. John Yiamouyiannis 4/28/90.
40. Chemical and Engineering News, 8/1/88, p. 36.
41. Waldbott, op. cit., p. 38.
42. F. Exner and G. Waldbott, op. cit., pp. 42-43.
43. Schenectady Gazette Star, 8/5/89.
44. Daniel Grossman, "Fluoride's Revenge,"
Dec. 1990, pp. 29-31.
45. American Journal of Public Health, 12/85.
46. Gary Null interview with Dr. John Yiamouyiannis, 3/10/95.
47. George Glasser, "Dental Fluorosis - A Legal Time Bomb!"
Sarasota/Florida ECO Report, Vol. 5, No. 2, Feb. 1995, pp. 1-5.
48. JAMA, Vol. 264, July 25, 1990, pp. 500
49. Cooper et al., JAMA, Vol. 266, July 24, 1991, pp. 513-14.
50. Christa Danielson et al., "Hip fractures and fluoridation
in Utah's elderly population," JAMA, Vol. 268, Aug. 12, 1992, pp.
51. Ibid., p. 746.
52. New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 322, pp. 802-809.
53. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 11/94.
54. U.S. National Research Council, Diet and Health, Washington,
D.C., National Academy Press, 1989, p. 121.
55. "Middletown, Maryland latest city to receive toxic spill
of fluoride in their drinking water," report by Truth About Fluoride,
Inc., in Townsend Letter for Doctors, 10/15/94, p. 1124.
56. Reprinted by M. Bevis, "Morbidity associated with ingestion/dialysis
of community water fluoride," CDC, Dental Div., 6/11/92, distributed
by Safe Water Foundation of Texas.
57. Townsend Letter for Doctors, 10/94, p. 1125.
58. Janet Raloff, "The St. Regis Syndrome," Science News,
July 19, 1980, pp. 42-43; reprinted in Griffiths, op. cit., p. 26.
59. Robert Tomalin, "Dumping grounds," Wall Street Journal,
Nov. 29, 1990; reprinted in Griffiths, op. cit.
60. "Summary review of health effects associated with hydrogen
fluoride acid related compounds," EPA Report Number 600/8-29/002F,
Dec. 1988, pp. 1- .
61. John Yiamouyiannis, Lifesaver's Guide to Fluoridation, Delaware,
Ohio, Safe Water Foundation, 1983, p. 1.
62. John Yiamouyiannis and Dean Burk, "Fluoridation of public water
systems and cancer death rates in humans," presented at the 57th
annual meeting of the American Society of Biological Chemists, and published
in Fluoride, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1977, pp. 102-103.
63. National Institute of Dental Research, "Fluoridation of
water and cancer: a review of the epidemiological efficiency,"
1985, pp. 10-13.
64. New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation.
65. Newsday, 2/27/90.
66. Oakland Tribune, 2/16/90.
67. NFFE Local 2050, 3/90.
68. Washington Post, 2/20/90.
69. The Lancet, 2/3/90.
70. Center for Health Action.
71. M.W. Browne, The New York Times, 3/13/90.
72. Medical Tribune, 2/22/90.
73. New York State Medical News, 3/90.
74. S. Begley, Newsweek, 2/5/90.
75. Safe Water Foundation, 3/4/90.
76. Mutation Research, Vol. 223, pp. 191-203.
77. Joel Griffiths, Medical Tribune, 2/22/90.
78. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, Vol. 21, pp. 309-318.
79. Journal of Carcinogenesis, Vol. 9, pp. 2279-2284.
80. Mark Lowey, "Scientists question health risks of fluoride,"
Calgary Herald, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Feb. 28, 1992; in Griffiths,
op. cit., p. 66.
81. Griffiths, op. cit., p. 66.
82. Center for Health Action, 3/90.
83. Gary Null interview with Dr. William Marcus, 3/10/95.
84. Longevity Magazine, 7/89.
85. The New York Times, 3/13/90.
Gary Null, PhD, award winning investigative reporter, has authored
50 books on health and nutrition, as well as numerous articles published
in leading magazines. Dr. Null holds a PhD in human nutrition and public
health science from the Union Graduate School. Former publisher of Natural
Living Newsletter, the current Gary Null's Natural Living Journal reports
on healthy alternatives in today's medicine, nutrition and lifestyle
choices, ten times a year, and is available by calling 516-547-7177.
Null hosts a nationally syndicated radio show, Natural Living, from
New York City. Call 212-799-1246 for a radio listing in your area.